Australian Shepherd
Australian Shepherd Dog
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Australian Shepherd Dog

Australian Shepherd

Despite his name, the Australian Shepherd originated in the western U.S., not Australia, around the time of the Gold Rush in the 1840s. Originally bred to herd livestock, he remains a working dog breed at heart; the Aussie, as he's nicknamed, is happiest when he has a job to do. He can be a wonderful family companion if his intelligence and energy are channeled into dog sports or activities.
 

Intelligent, hard working, and versatile, the Aussie is a no-nonsense dog who thrives in a home where his brains and energy are put to good use. You don't have to keep a flock of sheep if you live with an Aussie — although it doesn't hurt — but you do have to keep him busy. He's a high-energy dog who doesn't know the meaning of couch potato and wouldn't approve of it if he did

Highlights

  • Australian Shepherds need roughly 30 to 60 minutes of exercise a day, preferably with high-energy activities like playing Frisbee. They need a job to do as well, such as daily obedience training or competing in herding and agility trials.
  • Australian Shepherds can be very destructive and bark for long periods if they're not getting the exercise and mental stimulation they need.
  • Aussies will alert bark to warn you if they see or hear something suspicious, and will protect their family and home with a surprising fierceness.
  • Although Australian Shepherds have the reputation for needing wide-open space, they do just fine in cities if they get enough stimulation and exercise. They're not good apartment dogs, though. You'll want at least a small yard to help them get out some of their high energy.
  • This herding dog's pushiness with livestock can carry over into the home and, with a timid or inexperienced owner, he may assume the dominant role in the family. The breed needs a firm and confident owner — Aussies probably aren't a good choice if you've never had a dog before.
  • Australian Shepherds are average shedders, and their coat needs regular maintenance, including weekly brushing to keep it clean and prevent matting, and possibly trimming to keep it looking tidy.
  • Aussies enjoy the company of their family and prefer to stick close to their human pack. They don't do well stuck in the backyard by themselves for long periods.
  • Aussies are by nature standoffish with people they don't know, and unless they have regular exposure to lots of different people — ideally beginning in puppyhood — they can become fearful of strangers. This may lead to biting out of fear and aggression. Give your Aussie lots of contact with friends, family, neighbors, and even strangers to help him polish his social skills.
  • To get a healthy dog, never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies, and that they have sound temperaments.

Health

Aussies are generally healthy, but like all breeds, they're prone to certain health conditions. Not all Aussies will get any or all of these diseases, but it's important to be aware of them if you're considering this breed.

  • Hip Dysplasia: This is a heritable condition in which the femur doesn't fit snugly into the pelvic socket of the hip joint. Hip dysplasia can exist with or without clinical signs. Some dogs exhibit pain and lameness on one or both rear legs. As the dog ages, arthritis can develop. X-ray screening for hip dysplasia is done by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals or the University of Pennsylvania Hip Improvement Program. Dogs with hip dysplasia should not be bred. Ask the breeder for proof that the parents have been tested for hip dysplasia and found to be free of problems.
  • Elbow Dysplasia: This is a heritable condition common to large-breed dogs. It's thought to be caused by different growth rates of the three bones that make up the dog's elbow, causing joint laxity. This can lead to painful lameness. Your vet may recommend surgery to correct the problem, or medication to control the pain.
  • Epilepsy: The Australian Shepherd can suffer from epilepsy, which is a disorder that causes seizures. Epilepsy can be treated with medication, but it cannot be cured. A dog can live a full and healthy life with the proper management of this hereditary disorder.
  • Deafness: Deafness is fairly common in this breed and can pose many challenges. Some forms of deafness and hearing loss can be treated with medication and surgery, but usually deafness cannot be cured. Living with and training a deaf dog requires patience and time, but there are many aids on the market, such as vibrating collars, to make life easier. If your Aussie is diagnosed with hearing loss or total deafness, take the time to evaluate if you have the patience, time, and ability to care for the animal. Regardless of your decision, it is best to notify the breeder.
  • Osteochondrosis Dissecans (OCD): This orthopedic condition, caused by improper growth of cartilage in the joints, usually occurs in the elbows, but it has been seen in the shoulders as well. It causes a painful stiffening of the joint, to the point that the dog is unable to bend his elbow. It can be detected in dogs as early as four to nine months of age. Overfeeding of "growth formula" puppy foods or high-protein foods may contribute to its development.
  • Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA): This is a degenerative eye disorder that eventually causes blindness from the loss of photoreceptors at the back of the eye. PRA is detectable years before the dog shows any signs of blindness. Fortunately, dogs can use their other senses to compensate for blindness, and a blind dog can live a full and happy life. Just don't make it a habit to move the furniture around. Reputable Aussie breeders have their dogs' eyes certified annually by a veterinary ophthalmologist and do not breed dogs with this disease.
  • Cataracts: A cataract is an opacity on the lens of the eye that causes difficulty in seeing. The eye(s) of the dog will have a cloudy appearance. Cataracts usually occur in old age and sometimes can be surgically removed to improve the dog's vision.
  • Distichiasis: This condition occurs when an additional row of eyelashes (known as distichia) grow on the oil gland in the dog's eye and protrude along the edge of the eyelid. This irritates the eye, and you may notice your Aussie squinting or rubbing his eye(s). Distichiasis is treated surgically by freezing the excess eyelashes with liquid nitrogen and then remove them. This type of surgery is called cryoepilation and is done under general anesthesia.
  • Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA): Collie Eye Anomaly is an inherited condition that can lead to blindness in some dogs. It usually occurs by the time the dog is 2 years old and is diagnosed by a veterinary ophthalmologist. There is no treatment for CEA, but as noted above, blind dogs can get around very well using their other senses. It is important to remember that this condition is a genetic abnormality, and your breeder should be notified if your puppy has the condition. It is also important to spay or neuter your dog to prevent the gene from being passed to a new generation of puppies.
  • Persistent Pupillary Membranes (PPM): Persistent Pupillary Membranes are strands of tissue in the eye, remnants of the fetal membrane that nourished the lenses of the eyes before birth. They normally disappear by the time a puppy is 4 or 5 weeks old, but sometimes they persist. The strands can stretch from iris to iris, iris to lens, or cornea to iris, and sometimes they are found in the anterior (front) chamber of the eye. For many dogs, the strands do not cause any problems and generally they break down by 8 weeks of age. If the strands do not break down, they can lead to cataracts or cause corneal opacities. Eye drops prescribed by your veterinarian can help break them down.
  • Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is an abnormally low level of the hormone produced by the thyroid gland. A mild sign of the disease may be infertility. More obvious signs include obesity, mental dullness, lethargy, drooping of the eyelids, low energy levels, and irregular heat cycles. The dog's fur becomes coarse and brittle and begins to fall out, while the skin becomes tough and dark. Hypothyroidism can be treated with daily medication, which must continue throughout the dog's life. A dog receiving daily thyroid treatment can live a full and happy life.
  • Allergies: Allergies are a common ailment in dogs. Allergies to certain foods are identified and treated by eliminating certain foods from the dog's diet until the culprit is discovered. Contact allergies are caused by a reaction to something that touches the dog, such as bedding, flea powders, dog shampoos, or other chemicals. They are treated by identifying and removing the cause of the allergy. Inhalant allergies are caused by airborne allergens such as pollen, dust, and mildew. The appropriate medication for inhalant allergies depends on the severity of the allergy. Ear infections are a common side effect of inhalant allergies.
  • Drug Sensitivity: Sensitivity to certain drugs is commonly seen in herding breeds, including Australian Shepherds and Collies. It is caused by a mutation of the Multidrug Resistance Gene (MDR1), which produces a protein called P-glycoprotein. This protein works as a pump to remove toxic substances from the body to prevent the harmful effects of the toxins. In dogs who show Drug Sensitivity, that gene does not function, resulting in toxicity. Dogs with this mutated gene can be sensitive to Ivermectin, a medicine commonly used in anti-parasitic products such as heartworm preventives, as well as other drugs, including chemotherapy drugs. Signs of this sensitivity range from tremors, depression, seizures, incoordination, hypersalivation, coma, and even death. There is no known treatment but there is a new genetic test that can identify dogs with this nonfunctioning gene. All Australian Shepherds should be screened.
  • Cancer: Dogs, like humans, can develop cancer. There are many different types of cancer and the success of treatment differs for each individual case. For some forms of cancer, the tumors are surgically removed, others are treated with chemotherapy, and some are treated both surgically and medically.
  • Nasal Solar Dermatitis: Also known as Collie-nose, this condition generally occurs in dogs who have little or no pigment in their nose and is not restricted to Collies. Dogs who are super-sensitive to sunlight develop lesions on the nose and occasionally around the eyelids, ranging from light pink lesions to ulcerating lesions. The condition may be difficult to diagnose at first because several other diseases can cause the same lesions. If your Aussie is diagnosed with Collie nose, keep him out of direct sunlight, and apply doggie sunscreen when he goes outside. The most effective way to manage the condition is to tattoo the dog's nose black so the ink serves as a shield against sunlight.
  • Detached Retina: An injury to the face can cause the retina to become detached from its underlying supportive tissues. A detached retina can lead to visual impairment or even blindness. There is no treatment for a detached retina, but many dogs live full lives with visual impairments

 

 

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